University of Southern California

Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences

Biological Sciences

Courses of Instruction

Biological Sciences (BISC)

The terms indicated are expected but are not guaranteed. For the courses offered during any given term, consult the Schedule of Classes.

BISC 101Lxg Cellular and Molecular Biology (4, FaSp) Cellular and molecular biology with examples related to human biology and diseases. Fundamental life processes examined at the genetic, cellular and molecular levels. Not available for major credit.

BISC 102Lxg Humans and Their Environment (4, FaSp) An examination of the physical and biological laws that influence agriculture, pollution, population dynamics (including humans), climate, biodiversity and ecosystem structure and function. Not available for major credit.

BISC 103Lx General Biology for the Envi­ron­ment and Life (4) Study of common skills in biology, including basics of evolution, systemat­ics, ecology, genetics, biochemistry and molec­ular biology, physiology, and anatomy. Not for major credit for biological sciences majors.

BISC 104Lxg How the Body Works: ­Topics in Human Physiology (4, Fa) Structure and function of the human body, including the role of organ systems, tissues, and cells in normal function. Malfunctions relating to disease, substance abuse and lifestyle. Not available for major credit.

BISC 108L Special Laboratory I (1) Laboratory component for BISC 120 for entering freshmen or transfer students with advanced placement or equivalent lecture credit from another institution.

BISC 109L Special Laboratory II (1) Laboratory component for BISC 220 for entering freshmen or transfer students with advanced placement or equivalent lecture credit from another institution.

BISC 120Lg General Biology: Organismal Biology and Evolution (4, Fa) In-depth survey of key topics related to advances in our knowledge of the diversity of life and evolution; origin of life; eukaryotes/prokaryotes; ecology. (Duplicates credit in BISC 112L, BISC 113L, and BISC 121L.)

BISC 121Lg Advanced General Biology: Organismal Biology and Evolution (4, Fa) Equivalent to 120L, but taught at a higher level for exceptionally well-prepared students. Admission to the course by departmental approval only. (Duplicates credit in BISC 112L, BISC 113L, and BISC 120L.) Corequisite: CHEM 115aL.

BISC 140 Human Impact on the Ocean Planet (4) Overview of marine ­biodiversity and human influence on marine biota; eutrophication in bays and estuaries; global movement of invasive species, harmful algal blooms, fishing activities and sewage/chemical pollution.

BISC 150Lxg The Nature of Human Health and Disease (4, FaSp) The human organism; the nature of inherited and acquired diseases; the biological and societal basis for the AIDS epidemic; therapy, drug design and the future. Not available for major credit.

BISC 180Lxg Evolution (4, Sp) Changes in the physical and biological universe over time; origins of life, dinosaurs, human evolution. Implications of evolutionary mechanisms and mass extinctions for human survival. Not available for major credit.

BISC 193 Freshman Colloquium I (1, Fa) A series of lectures and discussions at which faculty of the department introduce their research activities to students entering biology and related majors. Graded CR/NC. Corequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 194 Freshman Colloquium II (1, Sp) A series of lectures and discussions at which faculty of the department introduce their research activities to students entering biology and related majors. Graded CR/NC. Corequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L.

BISC 220L General Biology: Cell Biology and Physiology (4, Sp) In-depth survey of key topics related to advances in our knowledge of cellular biology and physiology; cell composition/metabolism; gene action; organism structure and function. (Duplicates credit in BISC 110L, BISC 111L, and BISC 221L.) Recommended preparation: high school chemistry; BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 221L Advanced General Biology: Cell Biology and Physiology (4, Sp) Equivalent to 220L, but taught at a higher level for exceptionally well-prepared students. Admission to the course by departmental approval only. (Duplicates credit in BISC 110L, BISC 111L, and BISC 220L.) Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; corequisite: CHEM 105bL or CHEM 115bL.

BISC 230Lxg Brain, Mind and Machines: Topics in Neuroscience (4, Sp) The structure and function of the mammalian brain including the role of the brain in regulating behavior, both in normal and diseased states; in relation to mind; and in comparison with machine forms of intelligence. Not available for major credit.

BISC 290 Introduction to Biological Research (2 or 4, max 4, FaSpSm) Experience in basic techniques through supervised research in the research laboratory of a departmental faculty member. Graded CR/NC. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; CHEM 105bL or CHEM 115bL; departmental approval.

BISC 300L Introduction to Microbiology (4, Sp) Comparative approach to bacteria, Archaea and viruses; their structure, life cycles, geochemical activity, ecology and nutrition. Fundamentals of metabolism and microbial genetics. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 320, CHEM 322aL or CHEM 325aL.

BISC 305 Introduction to Statistics for Biologists (4, Fa) Statistical methods in biological science and medicine, including populations and samples, random sampling, confidence intervals, paired samples and regression.

BISC 307L General Physiology (4, Sp) Physiological functions of the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, integumentary, musculoskeletal, nervous, respiratory, and urogenital systems of animals. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L.

BISC 313L Evolution and Population Genetics (4, Sp) History of evolutionary thought; molecular basis for evolution; dynamics of genes in populations; speciation and macro­evolution; patterns of evolution. Laboratory, 2 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L; BISC 120L or BISC 121L; recommended preparation: BISC 320L, BISC 325, and familiarity with algebra, basic chemistry, and basic physics.

BISC 315L Introduction to Ecology (4, Fa) Organism-environment interactions; dynamics of populations, communities, and ecosystems; evolutionary forces. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 320L Molecular Biology (4, Fa) Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; molecular biology of prokaryotes and eukaryotes; principles of genetics and cell biology. (Duplicates credit in BISC 311.) ­Prerequisite: CHEM 105bL or CHEM 115bL.

BISC 321x Science, Technology and Society (2, Sp) Builds upon a basic science background to provide students with an awareness of cutting edge scientific research, its technological applications and its societal ramifications. Not available for major credit. (Duplicates credit in former MDA 321.) Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L or BISC 220L or BISC 221L; CHEM 105aL or CHEM 115aL; PHYS 135aL or PHYS 151L.

BISC 325 Genetics (4, Fa) Transmission genetics and genotype/phenotype; mapping methods; complex traits; genetics of human disease and population genetics. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; BISC 320L; CHEM 322aL; ­corequisite: CHEM 322bL or CHEM 325bL.

BISC 330L Biochemistry (4, Sp) Basic biochemical principles; classes of molecules — structure and function; cellular energetics. (Duplicates credit in BISC 316L.) Prerequisite: BISC 320L; CHEM 322aL.

BISC 369L Ecology and the Natural History of California (4, Sp) Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial communities of California. Life histories, morphology, special evolutionary adaptations. Relationships between organisms and their biological-physical-chemical environment. Offered on Catalina. Emphasis on field biology. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 371L Molecular Approaches to the Diversity of Life (4) Patterns of evolutionary change investigating the molecular basis of heredity utilizing DNA data. History, principles and application of molecular systematics, and genetic variation. Taught on Catalina ­Island. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; recommended preparation: BISC 320L.

BISC 390 Special Problems (1–4) Supervised, individual studies. No more than one registration permitted. Enrollment by petition only.

BISC 403 Advanced Molecular Biology (4, Fa) Molecular mechanisms and control of DNA replication, DNA repair, recombination, gene expression, cell growth, and development in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, from bacteria to humans. Prerequisite: BISC 3201L; recommended preparation: BISC 313 or BISC 325.

BISC 405L General Embryology (4, Fa) ­Vertebrate and human development: cellular differentiation; germ cell development and growth; hormonal regulation of reproductive cycles; cleavage through neurulation and subsequent development of primary organs. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Junior standing. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; recommended preparation: two from BISC 313, BISC 320L, BISC 325 and BISC 330L.

BISC 406L Biotechnology (4, Fa) Techniques in molecular biology and biochemistry applied to prokaryotic and eukaryotic model systems; applications of recombinant DNA and genomic technology. Prerequisite: BISC 320L; recommended preparation: BISC 313 or BISC 325.

BISC 408 Systems Neuroscience: From ­Synapses to Perception (4, Sp) Sensory systems to illustrate basic concepts regarding the functional organization of the brain, from the microscopic arrangement of neural circuits to global processes such as perception. Prerequisite: BISC 421.

BISC 410 Applications of Molecular Biology to Medicine (4, Sp) Advances and trends in the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. Senior standing. Prerequisite: BISC 330L.

BISC 411 Advanced Cell Biology (4, FaSpSm) The synthesis, transport and assembly of the complex structures that mediate eukaryotic cellular function. Electrical and biochemical mechanisms underlying intercellular communication. ­Prerequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L; BISC 320L.

BISC 414 Biology of Cancer (4, Sp) Focus on the advances in molecular biology of cancer, from fundamental molecular signaling pathways to DNA repair to stem cell biology, through primary research literature reviews. ­Prerequisite: BISC 325.

BISC 419 Environmental Microbiology (4, Sp) Qualitative and quantitative appraisal of microbial activities in pure and contaminated environments; microbial community and its development; interspecific relationships; effects of microorganisms on their surroundings. Lecture, 4 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 330L; recommended preparation: BISC 300L.

BISC 421 Neurobiology (4, Fa) Structure, function, and development of nervous systems; neural integration and mechanisms of behavior; organization and operation of brains. Lecture, 3 hours; discussion, 2 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L.

BISC 422L Neurobiology Laboratory (2, Sp) Exper­imentation on excitable cells, synapses, and neural circuits; intracellular and extra­cellular techniques for recording, stimulation, and identification of nerve and muscle cells. Lecture, 1 hour; laboratory, 3 hours. Corequisite: BISC 421.

BISC 423 Epilepsy to Ecstasy: Biological Basis of Neurological Disorders (4, Sp) Examination of various neurological disorders originating from developmental signaling and/or anatomical abnormalities. Prerequisite: BISC 421.

BISC 424 Brain Architecture (4, Fa) How the parts of the brain are interconnected to form a complex biological computer, from historical, evolutionary, and developmental perspectives. Prerequisite: BISC 421.

BISC 425 Advanced Genetics through the Primary Scientific Literature (4, Sp) Literature-based seminar in current and classical topics in genetics. Prerequisite: BISC 325.

BISC 426 Principles of Neural Development (4, Sp) Basic phenomena and principles of neural development, their relation to functional development of neural circuits, behavior, and disease. General concepts and experimental approaches are emphasized. ­Prerequisite: BISC 421.

BISC 427 The Global Environment (4, FaSpSm) Earth’s development as a habitable planet, from origin to human impacts on global biogeochemical cycles in the ocean, land, atmosphere. Discussion of environmental alternatives. Open only to biological sciences, environmental sciences, and earth sciences majors. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; CHEM 105bL or CHEM 115bL.

BISC 428 The Biology of Tropical Diseases (4, max 8, Sm) Biological and biochemical approaches to the prevention and treatment of infectious and chronic tropical diseases. Course is offered off campus and summer only.

BISC 431L Aquatic Microbiology — Catalina Semester (4, FaSpSm) Introduction to the habitat, phylogenetic, physiological and metabolic diversity of microbial life in aquatic environments. Prerequisite: BISC 220. (Duplicates credit in BISC 419.)

BISC 435 Advanced Biochemistry (4, Sp) Macro­molecular structure and function; enzymology; metabolic regulation. Lecture, 3 hours; discussion, 2 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 330L.

BISC 437L Comparative Physiology of ­Animals (4, Sp) Control of the internal environment of animals in relation to their external environment. Thermal regulation, osmoregulation, excretion, and ion balance. Offered on Catalina. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 120 or BISC 121; BISC 220 or BISC 221; recommended preparation: two from BISC 313, BISC 320L, BISC 325 and BISC 330L.

BISC 440 Biodemography of Aging (4) (Enroll in GERO 440)

BISC 445L Fundamentals of Vertebrate Biology (4, Sp) Evolution and comparative anatomy of vertebrates. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Junior standing. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; recommended preparation: two from BISC 313, BISC 320L, BISC 325 and BISC 330L.

BISC 447L Island Biogeography and Field Ecology (4, Sp) Biogeography, geology, ecology, climate, flora, and fauna of terrestrial and marine environments of Catalina and the Channel Islands including laboratory and field techniques of ecology. Taught on Catalina ­Island. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 450L Principles of Immunology (4, Fa) Immune processes, humoral and cellular; immunoglobulins; antibody formation; antigen-antibody interactions; immune dyscrasias; transplantation and tumor immunology; basic hematology and immuno-hematology. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L.

BISC 455L Molecular Approaches to Microbial Diversity — Catalina Semester (4, Fa) Overview and practical application of genetic and immunological techniques for examining diversity and community structure of natural microbial assemblages in aquatic ecosystems. Prerequisite: BISC 320L; corequisite: BISC 431L.

BISC 456L Conservation Genetics (4, Sp) Biological principles underlying conservation including ecology, evolution, genetics and biogeography. Covers both marine and ter­restrial environment, with special emphasis on island biology. Catalina semester only. (Duplicates credit in BISC 373L.) Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; recommended preparation: BISC 320L; BISC 313 or BISC 325.

BISC 457L Methods in Marine Biology and Biological Oceanography — Catalina Semester (4, Sp) Introduction to standard methods used in oceanography and marine biology through a combination of lectures, laboratory exercises and field experiences. Prerequisite: BISC 120Lg or BISC 121Lg.

BISC 460 Seminar in Marine and Environmental Biology (2, max 4, FaSp) Topical seminar in marine and environmental biology. Junior, senior or graduate standing.

BISC 461 Seminar in Molecular and Computational Biology (2, max 4, FaSpSm) Topical seminar in molecular and computational biology. Junior, senior or graduate standing.

BISC 462 Seminar in Neurobiology (2, max 4, FaSp) Topical seminar in neurobiology. Junior, senior or graduate standing.

BISC 469L Marine Biology (4, Fa) Oceanography and marine biology, sampling techniques, evolutionary adaptations, morphology, syste­matics. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Field trip and field research projects required. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 473L Biological Oceanography (4, Sp) Biological, physical, chemical dynamics and analysis of the ocean; primary production of phytoplankton, secondary production by zooplankton, bacterial remineralization; physiology, ecology of fishes, marine mammals. Lecture, 3 hours; laboratory, 3 hours. Junior standing. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L; recommended preparation: two from BISC 313, BISC 320L, BISC 325 and BISC 330L.

BISC 474L Ecosystem Function and Earth Systems (4, Fa) General principles of ecosystem function, energy flow and materials cycling in marine systems at various scales and the importance of microbial processes in these systems. Taught on Catalina Island. ­Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L.

BISC 478 Computational Genome Analysis (4, Sp) Introduction to and applications of algorithms and statistics to genome analysis. Analysis of physical and genetic maps, DNA sequencing, sequence comparisons, DNA chips.

BISC 480 Developmental Biology (4, FaSp) Basic mechanisms of animal development are considered at different levels of analysis. Emphasis is on molecular, genetic, and cellular processes underlying vertebrate and invertebrate development. General concepts and evolutionary mechanisms are emphasized. Lecture, 3 hours; discussion, 2 hours. Prerequisite: BISC 220L or BISC 221L.

BISC 481 Structural Bioinformatics: From Atoms to Cells (4, Fa) Introduction to computational and experimental methods for structural bioinformatics. Analysis of macro­molecules and their complexes.

BISC 483 Geobiology and Astrobiology (4, Sp) Relationships between microbiota and the earth environment including the hydrosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, with consideration of the potential for life on other planets. Prerequisite: BISC 120L, CHEM 105bL.

BISC 485 Advanced Seminar in Bacterial Survival and Evolution (4, Sp) Literature-based seminar in current topics in microbial evolution and adaptation. Prerequisite: BISC 120 or BISC 121, BISC 220 or BISC 221, BISC 320, CHEM 322a or CHEM 325a.

BISC 490x Directed Research (1–8, max 12, FaSpSm) Individual research and readings. Not available for graduate credit.

BISC 493x Honors Seminar (1, max 4, FaSp) Not available for graduate credit. Prerequisite: BISC 120L or BISC 121L; BISC 220L or BISC 221L.

BISC 494x Honors Thesis (2, FaSp) Not available for graduate credit. Prerequisite: BISC 493.

BISC 499 Special Topics (2–4, max 8, FaSp) Lecture and discussion in specialized areas of the biological sciences. Students cannot register more than twice for this course. Not open to freshmen and sophomores. Recommended preparation: BISC 220L or BISC 221L, BISC 320L, BISC 325 and BISC 330L.

BISC 502ab Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry (4-4, FaSp) Current genetic and biochemical analysis of replication, recombination, mutagenesis, and repair. Fundamentals of transcription and regulation of gene expression. Recent applications of genetic engineering and genome analysis.

BISC 504L Laboratory Techniques in Cellular and Molecular Biology (1–4, max 8, FaSp) Rotation of graduate students through Molecular Biology research laboratories to learn the major technological skills required in the field. Graded CR/NC.

BISC 505 Genomics and Molecular Genetics (4, Sp) Molecular genetics (mutagenesis, repair, recombination, and gene ­regulation) from quantitative and mechanistic approaches. Simple and complex genome analysis using recombinant DNA, physical, and computational techniques. Recommended preparation: BISC 502b.

BISC 511 Integrative Biology (4, Fa) Current topics in integrative biology including form, function and energy use throughout the lifespan in the context of genetics, natural selection and ecology. (Duplicates credit in the former BISC 510a).

BISC 512 Evolutionary Biology (4, Sp) ­Survey of current topics in evolutionary biology; genetics, natural selection, ecology; emphasis on higher order complex questions of lifespan, form, function, and energy use. (Duplicates credit in the former BISC 510b.)

BISC 515 Evolution and Human Biology (4, Fa) ­Topics in evolution and human biology with emphasis on life­span, form, function and energy use in the context of genetics, natural selection and ecology.

BISC 519 Recent Advances in Neurobiology and Endocrinology of Aging (2, 4) (Enroll in GERO 519)

BISC 520 Recent Advances in Neurobiology (2 or 4, max 12, Fa) Lectures on selected topics in neurobiology. Registration restricted to three semesters. Prerequisite: graduate status in departmental program or departmental approval.

BISC 521 Hearing and Communication Neuro­science (4, Sp) A basic grounding in broad aspects of the neuroscience of hearing and vocal communication. Prerequisite: BISC 421, NSCI 524.

BISC 522 (3, Sp) (Enroll in AME 520)

BISC 529 Seminar in Marine Biology (1, max 4, FaSp) Graded CR/NC.

BISC 530 Advanced Seminar in Plankton Biology (2, FaSp) An overview of phytoplankton and zooplankton taxa, their morphologies and life histories using material collected from the local environment off LA and near the Phillip K. Wrigley Marine Science Center on Catalina Island.

BISC 531 Advanced Seminar on the Physiology of Marine Organisms (2, FaSp) Physiological processes dictate survival potential, growth rates, and many other biological processes that affect the distribution of species in the oceans. Emphasis on the diverse environmental factors that influence physiological adaptations of marine organisms. Examples from a wide variety of marine organisms, from bacterial to animals, will be studied.

BISC 532 Advanced Seminar in Molecular and Microbial Ecology (2, FaSp) Microorganisms dominate biological processes in the ocean. These species pose significant problems for estimating species diversity, abundance and activity. Examination of modern molecular biological approaches for analyzing aquatic microbial communities and their ecological roles.

BISC 533 Advanced Seminar in Remote Sensing and Modeling (2) Modern oceanographic methods for making remote measurements of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems using satellite imagery and other means. Integrating these data into models that describe ecosystem structure and enable interpretation of ecosystem function.

BISC 534 Advanced Seminar in Population Genetics of Marine Organisms (2) An overview of the theory underlying population and quantitative genetics, with applications to marine systems. Basic evolutionary mechanisms (mutation, migration, drift, selection, nonrandom mating) and modern evidence for their roles in structuring genetic variation within and among marine populations.

BISC 535 Seminar in Physiology (2, max 8, FaSp)

BISC 536 Advanced Seminar in Marine Biogeochemistry (2) Examination of the interplay between ocean biology and the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other elements on a local, regional and global scale. Open only to graduate students in biology and earth science.

BISC 537 Seminar in Cellular and Molecular Biology (2, max 8, FaSp)

BISC 538 Metals and Biology in Oceanic Regimes (2, Sp) Relationships between metals in reducing regimes and microbes that utilize them for metalloenzymes. Focus on biological availability of micronutrient and processes like chemoautotrophy or biomineralization.

BISC 542 Seminar in Molecular Biology (1, max 6, FaSp) Graded CR/NC.

BISC 543 Human Molecular Genetics (4) (Enroll in BIOC 543)

BISC 544 Advanced Reading in Molecular Biology (2, FaSpSm) Advanced training for molecular biology graduate students in reading primary journal articles. Emphasis on critical analyses of primary scientific literature. Open only to graduate students in molecular and computational biology and bioinformatics programs.

BISC 549 Seminar in Integrative and Evolutionary Biology (2, max 6, FaSp) Current topics in integrative and evolutionary biology.

BISC 572 Systems Physiology and Disease I (4, Fa) (Enroll in INTD 572)

BISC 574 Systems Physiology and Disease II (4, Sp) (Enroll in INTD 573)

BISC 576 Practical Statistics and Bioinformatics (2, Fa) Practical experience in statistics and bioinformatics methods, software packages applicable to molecular biology, genomics analysis, and structural bioinformatics and their underlying principles. Open only to doctoral students.

BISC 577ab Computational Molecular Biology Lab­oratory (a: 2, Sp; b: 2, Fa) Practical experience in computational molecular biology applications. Mathematical and statistical software packages relevant to genomic analysis. Retrieval and analysis of genomic data from databases. (Duplicates credit in former MATH 577ab.) Recommended preparation: higher level programming language.

BISC 581L Current Problems in Marine Sciences (4, max 16, Irregular) In-depth studies on selected problems of current interest in the marine sciences. Lecture and laboratory.

BISC 582 Advanced Biological Oceanography 4, Fa) Aspects of physics and chemistry of the oceans. Qualitative and quantitative considerations of the ecology of pelagic and benthic communities.

BISC 583 Evolution and Adaptation of Marine Organisms (4, Sp) Fundamentals of evolutionary patterns and processes in the marine environment, with emphasis on rates of adaptation to a changing ocean.

BISC 584 Faculty Lecture Series (2, Sp) Multi-­instructor course designed to introduce students to the breadth and depth of faculty interests within the Marine Environmental Biology section of Biological Sciences and the Natural History Museum.

BISC 585 Scientific Writing and Reviewing (2, Sp) Hands-on experience writing and reviewing scientific literature. The review process and participation in writing and reviewing their own proposals.

BISC 586 Biological Oceanographic Instrumentation (2, Sp) Survey of analytical principles, theory and application behind commonly used methodologies in biological oceanography.

BISC 587 Communicating Ocean Science (4, Sp) Multi-instructor, interdisciplinary course focused on student awareness and improvement of cognitive processes used in research development, and communication of ocean literacy in the public sector. Open only to Senior, Master’s, Professional, and Doctoral Students. Recommended preparation: Graduate level understanding of oceanographic principles.

BISC 588L Quantitative Analysis for Biological and Earth Sciences (4, Sp) Basics of biometrics, biodiversity, quantitative methods in ecology, environmental impact assessments and other topics in quantitative analysis.

BISC 590 Directed Research (1–12, FaSpSm) Research leading to the master’s degree. Maximum units which may be applied to the degree to be determined by the department. Graded CR/NC.

BISC 593 Practicum in Teaching the Biological Sciences (2, Fa) Practical principles for the long-term development of effective teaching within college disciplines. Intended for teaching assistants in Dornsife College. Graded CR/NC.

BISC 599 Special Topics (2–4, max 8, Irregular)

BISC 790 Research (1–12, FaSpSm) Research leading to the doctorate. Maximum units which may be applied to the degree to be determined by the department. Graded CR/NC.

BISC 794abcdz Doctoral Dissertation ­(2-2-2-2-0, FaSpSm) Credit on acceptance of dissertation. Graded IP/CR/NC.